Added: Sherkia Sarmiento - Date: 11.11.2021 11:43 - Views: 33821 - Clicks: 734
If someone asked you to describe your identity to them, where would you begin? Would it come down to your skin color or your nationality? What about the language you speak, your religion, your cultural traditions or your family's ancestry? This bewildering question often pushes people to separate their identities into two parts: race versus ethnicity. But what do these two terms actually mean, and what's the difference between race and ethnicity in the first place?
These words are often used interchangeably, but technically, they're defined as separate things. Ethnicity recognizes differences between people mostly on the basis of language and shared culture. Related: Why did some people become white? In other words, race is often perceived as something that's inherent in our biology, and therefore inherited across generations. Ethnicity, on the other hand, is typically understood as something we acquire, or self-ascribe, based on factors like where we live or the culture we share with others.
But just as soon as we've outlined these definitions, we're going to dismantle the very foundations on which they're built. That's because the question of race versus ethnicity actually exposes major and persistent flaws in how we define these two traits, flaws that — especially when it comes to race — have given them an outsized social impact on human history.
The Whats your race of "race" originated from anthropologists and philosophers in the 18th century, who used geographical location and phenotypic traits like skin color to place people into different racial groupings.
That not only formed the notion that there are separate racial "types" but also fueled the idea that these differences had a biological basis. That flawed principle laid the groundwork for the belief that some races were superior to others — creating global power imbalances Whats your race benefited white Europeans over other groups, in the form of the slave trade and colonialism.
Because the driver of the triangular trade [which included slavery] was capitalism, and the accumulation of wealth," said Jayne Whats your race. The center is part of a movement across the United States whose members lead events and discussions with the public to challenge historic and present-day racism. The effects of this history prevail today — even in current definitions of racewhere there's still an underlying assumption that traits like skin color or hair texture have biological, genetic underpinnings that are completely unique to different racial groups.
Yet, the scientific basis for that premise simply isn't there. But, she explained, "the amount of genetic variation within any of these groups is greater than the average difference between any two [racial] groups.
Related: What are genes? In other words, if you compare the genomes of people from different parts of the world, there are no genetic variants that occur in all members of one racial group but not in another. This conclusion has been reached in many different studies. Europeans and Asians, for instance, share almost the same set of genetic variations. As Jablonski described earlier, the racial groupings we have invented are actually genetically more similar to each other than they are different — meaning there's no way to definitively separate people into races according to their biology.
Jablonski's own work on skin color demonstrates this. In other words, it would be nonsense. It's true that we do routinely identify each other's race as "black," "white" or "Asian," based on visual cues. But crucially, those are values that humans have chosen to ascribe to each other or themselves. The problem occurs when we conflate this social habit with scientific truth — because there is nothing in individuals' genomes that could be used to separate them along such clear racial lines.
In short, variations in human appearance don't equate to genetic difference. They are not naturally occurring groups," Jablonski emphasized. This also exposes the major distinction between race and ethnicity : While race is ascribed to individuals on the basis of physical traits, ethnicity is more frequently chosen by the individual. And, because it encompasses everything from language, to nationality, culture and religion, it can enable people to take on several identities. Someone might choose to identify themselves as Asian American, British Somali or an Ashkenazi Jew, for instance, drawing on different aspects of their ascribed racial identity, culture, ancestry and religion.
Ethnicity has been used to oppress different groupsas occurred during the Holocaust, or within interethnic conflict of the Rwandan genocide, where ethnicity Whats your race used to justify mass killings. Yet, ethnicity can also be a boon for people who feel like they're siloed into one racial group or another, because it offers Whats your race degree of agency, Ifekwunigwe said.
That said, those multiple identities can also be difficult for people to claim, such as in the case of multiracialitywhich is often not officially recognized. Related: What happened during the Holocaust? Ethnicity and race are also irrevocably intertwined — not only because someone's ascribed race can be part of their chosen ethnicity but also because of other social factors.
These kinds of problems explain why there's a growing push to recognize race, like ethnicity, as a cultural and social construct — something that's a human inventionnot an objective reality. Race and ethnicity may be largely abstract concepts, but that doesn't override their very genuine, real-world influence. These constructs wield "immense power in terms of how societies work," said Ifekwunigwe. Defining people by race, especially, is ingrained in the way that societies are structured, how they function and how they understand their citizens.
Consider the fact that the U. Census Bureau officially recognizes five distinct racial groups. The legacy of racial has also shaped society in ways that have resulted in vastly different socioeconomic realities for different groups. That's reflected, for instance, in higher levels of poverty for minority groups, poorer access to education and health care, and greater exposure to crime, environmental injustices and other social ills.
What's more, race is still used by some as the motivation for continued discrimination against other groups that are deemed to be "inferior. It continues to determine people's access to opportunity, privilege and also livelihood in many instances, if we look at health outcomes," she said. Whats your race tangible example of health disparity comes from the United States, where data shows that African Whats your race women are more than twice as likely to die in childbirth compared with white women.
Perceptions of race even Whats your race the way we construct our own identities — though this isn't always a negative thing. A sense of racial identity in minority groups can foster pridemutual support and awareness. As the U. Census Bureau website explainshaving data about people's self-reported race "is critical in making policy decisions, particularly for civil rights.
All this paints a complex picture, which might leave us pondering how we should view the idea of race and ethnicity: Should we celebrate them, shun them or feel indifferent? There are no easy answers. But one thing is clear: While both are portrayed as a way to understand Whats your race diversity, in reality they also wield power as agents of division that don't reflect any scientific truths.
What the science does show us is that across all the we humans construct for ourselves, we share more in common than we don't. The real challenge for the future will be to see that, instead of our "differences" alone.
Originally published on Live Science. Live Science. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. See all comments This article is rather disturbing in that it attempts to mix science with Political Correctness. The article implies that our concepts of Race and Racial differences is strictly social and the genetic variations are "just not there. The attempts to indoctrinate via Pseudo Science is not. Whomever wrote this article needs to be censured. Why in heavens' name is human kind considered more than one Race. This is stupidity not Science.
Humanity is but one Whats your race. If some Neandertals had survived there would be two. That's the point of the article, we are all the same species. Based on pure biology and Linnaeus' zoological taxonomy, there are very little differences between all humans other than Whats your race we react to the external environments in which we have evolved hair and skin color, height, facial features, muscle development, etc. Other beyond this are purely human-constructed; which, is not always a "bad" thing.
Only when we classify these as more superior or inferior do they become a source of contention. Unfortunately, that became the norm since the dawn of modern civilization. Joe said:.
FairfaxPhD said:. Whats your race resides in the economic thesis of Karl Marx that he wrote around the early ,s. Use morality to blame one group or another for the ills of the world. As long as you stir the pot nothing is gained you divide people. So whom is really a, "minority? Not Asians, not Africans, not every other, "minority" you can phenotypically describe So why pretend? They needed more bronze shackles from the Latino Portuguese. The hand that feeds you is the easiest to bite. Please correct me if statistics, history, or inconvenient truths embarrass myopic views I accidentally uttered the inconvenient truth that Caucasians are a minority when you consider the bulk of Asia, the subcontinent of India, the overcrowded islands of Indonesia, and the burgeoning slums outside the, "5 eyes" countries.
IMHO we are are all equal. Just don't lecture Whats your race on birth control into already impoverished scenarios, or the accompanying stupidity that follows. Who in the, "first world" dares to call them out on their profligacy?
Their ineptitude at managing their scarce oops, their fault again resources. I don't care about the color of your skin, but as every one forgets Martin Luther King Jr. So lay off the, Bush meat" and the bat soup Because Y'all Whats your race yourselves with the crowning achievement of the Darwin Award, LOL corona virus just like the Bush meat eaters in Africa could not resist the plagues that haunt them, too.
Stupid is as stupid does. Peace out.Whats your race
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Examples of Race and Ethnicity